The term “logistics” in Greek means logistike nothing like art to think, calculate. Apply this concept began in the 6th century. These are essays that describe the martial art of the time. The post of Logistics existed at the court of the Byzantine emperor. His responsibilities included distribution acquired to table food.
There is information about the use of logistic principles Napoleon. He used them in his army manual.
In Russian, the term “logistics” appeared only in the early 19th century. This concept was introduced by the French military expert Antoine Zhomyny.
The main significance of the term
Logistics – is one part of economic science. The subject of consideration is the organization most rational process of promoting goods and services, which comes from producer to consumer. In addition, logistics – is discipline, the use of which is necessary to effectively manage inventory, process and promote them to customers. Consider this science and the necessary infrastructure to meet these challenges.
In terms of the management of any organization logistics – it is nothing like the strategic management of all material flows, from the procurement process, ending the sale and storage of goods, equipment and so on. E. Considered concept includes control information and financial assets.
The concept of logistics system
In the encyclopaedia can find definitions set of elements that, while in certain relations with each other to form a unity. This is the system.
Applicable to this concept before us science. In addition, logistics – is a term that is the basis for the discipline. The purpose of their creation is to minimize costs or saving them to a certain level in the delivery of information, services or products in the right quantity and assortment to the place specified in the contract with the buyer.
Logistic system – is economic targets, which have compatible elements, including:
set of different units that are in interaction with each other;
certain relationships that affect the integral quality;
system-factors that form the ordered relationship;
integrative qualities of the whole system, but not specific to its individual parts.
Elements of the system of movement of goods
Based on international practice, economists make a clear conclusion that the principles of logistics are one of the important trunk lines required for normal development of the company. The purpose of development – increasing the efficiency of material, labor and financial resources and management at various levels.
Elements of logistics system is very diverse. They include:
material resources required for the movement of goods (cargo handling machinery, vehicle, warehouse);
departments to manage all elements of the logistics chain.
In other words, promoting material flow during work carried out qualified personnel, using vehicles, various techniques and so on. D.
The concept of logistics system is impossible without a coordinated and harmonious operation of its units, which taken together, have a number of properties, including:
1. Integrity and chlenymostyu. Any system, including logistics, as a set of interacting elements. At the macro level, these include the company and moved between the transport. A more detailed consideration of logistics – a set of subsystems as:
purchase, in which there is a logistics system supply of material flow;
planning and subsequent management of production processes that take deposits received and send them to implement various manufacturing operations, making the subject of work in the final product;
sales, whose task is to disposal of material flow logistics system.
All elements are considered raznokachestvennymy, but at the same time compatible. They work together and ensure functioning of the logistics system.
2. Communications. They are between all elements of the logistics system, defining it as integrative. At the macro level as relationships are contract. In this mycological industrial relations systems.
3. Organization. It is this feature gives it logistical system orderliness.
4. integrative quality. This property affects the efficiency of the logistics system as a whole. Integrative qualities are the ability to deliver the right product to the buyer at the right place at minimal cost. In addition, this feature allows you to adjust the system in the event of changes in environmental conditions.
What are the different types of logistics systems? They are divided into transportation and warehousing, manufacturing and legal, personnel, information and so on. D. All of them are in two main groups, which are macro – and mykrolohystycheskymy. This is the main logistics. Let us consider each of these in more detail.
It is a large chain links, which covers the organization of industry, trade and transport, or located in different countries, or in certain regions of the state. Included in the system and makrolohycheskuyu dealerships. These units together constitute the economic infrastructure of the region, individual states or groups of countries.
Creating a system makrolohycheskoy international level is a matter of quite complex. It is necessary to overcome the difficulties associated with economic and legal peculiarities of different countries. Also many other difficulties facing such logistics. This unequal terms of delivery of goods, and various traffic laws and other barriers.
Creating makrolohystycheskoy system under international programs requires formation in law single market and economic space, has no internal borders. Thus during transportation of goods, labor, capital and information, there should be no customs barriers.
Types of macro logistics systems are classified by the following features:
by administrative-territorial division of the country;
by subjective features.
In Western Europe the practice is often used such a thing as a global Makrologisticheskaya system. This can be a state (eg translyatsyonnaya) system. Its formation is at the country level. Global call and the interstate system, covering several states. In the same concept include the transcontinental chain that operates across several continents.
Under existing connections makrolohistychnyh systems are divided into three types. Yes, they may have:
direct connections when material flow moves directly from the manufacturer to the end user of the goods;
at least one intermediary (such эshelonyrovannymy called logistics);
or direct connections or supply goods through an intermediary (flexible logistics).
This kind of organization of material flow, used in a particular company. The aim is to optimize the chain mykrolohystycheskoy move resources within the production process, supply, sales.
Logistics enterprise system should be built on the basis of strategic goals and solve the problem of optimizing its functioning. Such covers the development of each individual company. This provides logistic system of resolving internal issues relating to the movement of material flow.
And in this case has its own classification. Types of micro logistics systems are divided into:
of internal (domestic);
Logistics company internal system designed to optimize the type of material flows within the production cycle of a production. Its main tasks are on reducing WIP inventory and material resources, but also reduce the period of turnover of working capital. For this logistic system of the enterprise to exercise management and control over the level of material resources and optimize technological transport. The successful solution of this problem will lead to minimal production costs and increase productivity while maintaining the required quality of the finished products.
Logistic systems appearance created to address problems associated with the optimization and management of material and accompanying flow from supplier to customer. This movement occurs technological cycle of enterprise.
The elements that make up the outer logistic system, this supply and distribution networks that provide the movement of products from the manufacturer’s warehouse to the end user. These include both intracompany transport, storage and so on. D. Unit and involving organizations that perform transportation. The main tasks that are designed to resolve external logistics systems are as efficient material flow of traffic, as well as optimization of all costs and reducing delivery time.
Current economic conditions require very different approaches to promote material flow. And here come to the aid of the integrated logistics system. They are based at the confluence of traditional methods and new innovative strategic management scheme streams. Currently leading companies in the world in the development of logistics units passing the material flow using general information and computer platforms.
It formed a strategic innovation system. Integrated logistics management enables companies to greatly increase the rate of asset turnover, reduce inventory and material resources to meet the needs of consumers with quality products and services. Combining work management company, all its business units and logistics partners, we can achieve the best results in business.